מעקב אחרי חולה עם סרטן או בסיכון מוגבר לפתח סרטן מטרתה לגלות את התפתחות הסרטן מורדם בחולים הנמצאים בסיכון מוגבר לפתח סרטן מעל הממוצע [חולים עם היסטוריה של פוליפ, סרטן או דלקת כרונית לאורך המעי, סיפור משפחתי של פוליפ או וסרטן או תסמונת פוליפוזיס גנטית/ תורשתית.
Medical screening and medical surveillance are two fundamental strategies for optimizing employee health. Although the terms are often used interchangeably, they are quite distinct concepts. Medical screening is, in essence, only one component of a comprehensive medical surveillance program. The fundamental purpose of screening is early diagnosis and treatment of the individual and thus has a clinical focus. The fundamental purpose of surveillance is to detect and eliminate the underlying causes such as hazards or exposures of any discovered trends and thus has a prevention focus. Both can contribute significantly to the success of worksite health and safety programs. However OSHA "medical surveillance" requirements are generally clinically focused (e.g.,medical and work histories, physical assessment, biological testing) with information obtained from the clinical processes used in the monitoring and analysis elements of medical surveillance.
Medical screening and surveillance are addressed in specific standards for the general industry.
Medical Surveillance – Departement of labor USA
Medical surveillance is the analysis of health information to look for problems that may be occurring in the workplace that require targeted prevention. Thus, surveillance serves as a feedback loop to the employer. Surveillance may be based on a single case or sentinel event, but more typically uses screening results from the group of employees being evaluated to look for abnormal trends in health status. Surveillance can also be conducted on a single employee over time. Review of group results helps to identify potential problem areas and the effectiveness of existing worksite preventive strategies. The following resources contain medical surveillance information including specific hazards and surveillance guidelines.
- Surveillance. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Workplace Safety and Health Topic.
- Indicators for Occupational Health Surveillance. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 50(RR01);1-7, (2007, January 19).
- Health Hazard Evaluations. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH conducts investigations of possible health hazards in the workplace to determine whether any substance normally found in the place of employment has potentially toxic effects in such concentrations as used or found.
- The Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance Report, 2002 (PDF). US Department of Human Health Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupation Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 2003-111, (2002). Provides national and state-specific data of pneumoconiosis and other work-related respiratory conditions.
§ TLV®/BEI® Resources. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). This organization of government and industrial hygienists publishes biological exposure indices for use which can be used for criteria for evaluating biological samples collected for medical surveillance.
- Tracking Occupational Injuries, Illnesses, and Hazards: The NIOSH Surveillance Strategic Plan. US Department of Human Health Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupation Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-118, (2001, January). NIOSH embarked on a process to assess current surveillance needs and to identify its goals for the next decade. The Surveillance Strategic Plan is the result of that effort.
- Occupational Medical Examinations and Surveillance Manual (PDF). US Department of Defense (DoD). Provides minimum standards for medial surveillance programs to help occupational health professionals and others recognize and evaluate health risks associated with specific workplace exposures.
o General Information. Chapter 1. Describes the general requirements for medical surveillance, types of examinations, and record keeping.
o Medical Surveillance for OSHA-Regulated Exposures. Chapter 2. Describes OSHA related medical surveillance.
o Medical Surveillance Endorsed by the Department of Defense. Chapter 3. Includes additional medical surveillance protocols endorsed by the DoD, where OSHA does not provide guidance.
- A Guide for the Management, Analysis, and Interpretation of Occupational Mortality Data. US Department of Human Health Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 90-115, (1990, September). Provides guidelines for state health departments interested in occupational mortality surveillance.
- For additional information, see OSHA's Safety and Health Topics Pages on: